OF THE CAROLINAS & GEORGIA
teaching key
OF THE CAROLINAS & GEORGIA

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LEAVES (select one)

Leaves are a solid shade of green or bluish-green.

Leaves are mottled in different shades of green.

FLOWER STALKS (select one)

Flowers borne on stalks, either above or below the leaves.

Flowers are sessile (without stalks).

Drawing

STALKED TRILLIUMS (WAKEROBINS) CAN BE DIVIDED INTO 3 GROUPS (select one):

Petals with a coarse texture and prominent netted veins, not wavy-margined, not changing colors after pollination, and not overlapping at base (or if overlapping, not forming a tube). These comprise the Erectum complex.

Petals delicately textured with margins that may be wavy, white turning pink after pollination (or pink turning darker pink), loosely to tightly overlapping at base. These are sometimes called the ”trumpet flowers,“ because they often form a tube then flare outward like a trumpet.

Petals delicate with wavy margins, white, usually marked with a red triangular pattern. Leaves bluish- or coppery green with short leafstalks. This is the Painted Trillium.

STALK ORIENTATION (select one)

Flowers are held about at the level of, or above, the leaves.

Flowers are clearly nodding, somewhat hidden, below the leaves.

SESSILE TRILLIUMS (TOADSHADES) CAN BE DIVIDED INTO 3 GROUPS (select one):

Petals gradually tapered to the base and somewhat overlapping, thus (in side view) mostly concealing the flower's inner parts. Stamens about as long as ovary and ending in blunt tips (not in pronounced beak-like sterile appendages). These comprise the Cuneatum complex.

Petals noticeably narrowed at the base (“clawed”). The flower's inner parts are visible in side view.

Leaf mottling tends to be strong, with 5 shades of green and often a prominent silver stripe. Stamens have pronounced beak-like sterile appendages that extend beyond the anthers.

 

Click the SUBMIT button to examine Trillium that meet your criteria (listed below).

Trillidium undulatum range map Painted Trillium, Striped Wake-robin
Trillium catesbyi range map Catesby's Trillium, Rosy Wake-robin, Bashful Trillium, Rose Trillium
Trillium cernuum range map Northern Nodding Trillium
Trillium cuneatum range map Little Sweet Betsy, Purple Toadshade
Trillium decipiens range map Chattahoochee Trillium, Deceptive Trillium
Trillium decumbens range map Decumbent Trillium, Trailing Trillium
Trillium delicatum range map Ocmulgee Trillium, Oaky Woods Trillium
Trillium discolor range map Pale Yellow Trillium, Faded Trillium, Small Yellow Toadshade, Savannah River Trillium
Trillium erectum range map Red Trillium, Purple Trillium, Stinking Willie, Stinking Benjamin
Trillium flexipes range map Bent Trillium, Bent White Trillium, Bentstalk Trillium, Drooping Trillium
Trillium grandiflorum range map Large-flowered Trillium, Great White Trillium, White Wake-robin, Showy Wake-robin
Trillium lancifolium range map Lanceleaf Trillium, Narrowleaf Trillium
Trillium ludovicianum range map Louisiana Trillium, Louisiana Wake-robin
Trillium luteum range map Yellow Trillium, Yellow Toadshade, Lemon-scented Trillium, Wax Trillium
Trillium maculatum range map Mottled Trillium, Spotted Trillium
Trillium oostingii range map Wateree River Trillium
Trillium persistens range map Persistent Trillium, Edna's Trillium
Trillium pusillum + range map Carolina Least Trillium, Virginia Dwarf Trillium, Aiken Least Trillium
Trillium recurvatum range map Prairie Trillium, Prairie Wake-robin, Recurved Trillium
Trillium reliquum range map Relict Trillium
Trillium rugelii range map Southern Nodding Trillium
Trillium sessile range map Sessile Trillium, Sessile Toadshade, Toad Trillium
Trillium simile range map Sweet White Trillium, Confusing Trillium, Jeweled Trillium
Trillium species 2 range map Amicalola Trillium
Trillium species 3 range map Lookout Mountain Trillium, Ruby Falls Trillium, Freeman's Trillium
Trillium stamineum range map Twisted Trillium, Helicopter Trillium
Trillium sulcatum range map Southern Red Trillium, Barksdale's Trillium
Trillium underwoodii range map Underwood's Trillium
Trillium vaseyi range map Vasey's Trillium, Sweet Trillium, Sweet Beth

 

Click the SUBMIT button to examine Trillium that meet your criteria (listed below).

Trillidium undulatum range map Painted Trillium, Striped Wake-robin
Trillium catesbyi range map Catesby's Trillium, Rosy Wake-robin, Bashful Trillium, Rose Trillium
Trillium cernuum range map Northern Nodding Trillium
Trillium erectum range map Red Trillium, Purple Trillium, Stinking Willie, Stinking Benjamin
Trillium flexipes range map Bent Trillium, Bent White Trillium, Bentstalk Trillium, Drooping Trillium
Trillium grandiflorum range map Large-flowered Trillium, Great White Trillium, White Wake-robin, Showy Wake-robin
Trillium persistens range map Persistent Trillium, Edna's Trillium
Trillium pusillum + range map Carolina Least Trillium, Virginia Dwarf Trillium, Aiken Least Trillium
Trillium rugelii range map Southern Nodding Trillium
Trillium simile range map Sweet White Trillium, Confusing Trillium, Jeweled Trillium
Trillium species 2 range map Amicalola Trillium
Trillium sulcatum range map Southern Red Trillium, Barksdale's Trillium
Trillium vaseyi range map Vasey's Trillium, Sweet Trillium, Sweet Beth

 

Click the SUBMIT button to examine Trillium that meet your criteria (listed below).

Trillium cuneatum range map Little Sweet Betsy, Purple Toadshade
Trillium decipiens range map Chattahoochee Trillium, Deceptive Trillium
Trillium decumbens range map Decumbent Trillium, Trailing Trillium
Trillium delicatum range map Ocmulgee Trillium, Oaky Woods Trillium
Trillium discolor range map Pale Yellow Trillium, Faded Trillium, Small Yellow Toadshade, Savannah River Trillium
Trillium lancifolium range map Lanceleaf Trillium, Narrowleaf Trillium
Trillium ludovicianum range map Louisiana Trillium, Louisiana Wake-robin
Trillium luteum range map Yellow Trillium, Yellow Toadshade, Lemon-scented Trillium, Wax Trillium
Trillium maculatum range map Mottled Trillium, Spotted Trillium
Trillium oostingii range map Wateree River Trillium
Trillium recurvatum range map Prairie Trillium, Prairie Wake-robin, Recurved Trillium
Trillium reliquum range map Relict Trillium
Trillium sessile range map Sessile Trillium, Sessile Toadshade, Toad Trillium
Trillium species 3 range map Lookout Mountain Trillium, Ruby Falls Trillium, Freeman's Trillium
Trillium stamineum range map Twisted Trillium, Helicopter Trillium
Trillium underwoodii range map Underwood's Trillium

 

Click the SUBMIT button to examine Trillium that meet your criteria (listed below).

Trillidium undulatum range map Painted Trillium, Striped Wake-robin
Trillium catesbyi range map Catesby's Trillium, Rosy Wake-robin, Bashful Trillium, Rose Trillium
Trillium cernuum range map Northern Nodding Trillium
Trillium erectum range map Red Trillium, Purple Trillium, Stinking Willie, Stinking Benjamin
Trillium flexipes range map Bent Trillium, Bent White Trillium, Bentstalk Trillium, Drooping Trillium
Trillium grandiflorum range map Large-flowered Trillium, Great White Trillium, White Wake-robin, Showy Wake-robin
Trillium persistens range map Persistent Trillium, Edna's Trillium
Trillium pusillum + range map Carolina Least Trillium, Virginia Dwarf Trillium, Aiken Least Trillium
Trillium rugelii range map Southern Nodding Trillium
Trillium simile range map Sweet White Trillium, Confusing Trillium, Jeweled Trillium
Trillium species 2 range map Amicalola Trillium
Trillium sulcatum range map Southern Red Trillium, Barksdale's Trillium
Trillium vaseyi range map Vasey's Trillium, Sweet Trillium, Sweet Beth

 

This database doesn't include any Trillium that meet those criteria.

 

This database doesn't include any Trillium that meet those criteria.

 

Click the SUBMIT button to examine Trillium that meet your criteria (listed below).

Trillium cuneatum range map Little Sweet Betsy, Purple Toadshade
Trillium decipiens range map Chattahoochee Trillium, Deceptive Trillium
Trillium decumbens range map Decumbent Trillium, Trailing Trillium
Trillium delicatum range map Ocmulgee Trillium, Oaky Woods Trillium
Trillium discolor range map Pale Yellow Trillium, Faded Trillium, Small Yellow Toadshade, Savannah River Trillium
Trillium lancifolium range map Lanceleaf Trillium, Narrowleaf Trillium
Trillium ludovicianum range map Louisiana Trillium, Louisiana Wake-robin
Trillium luteum range map Yellow Trillium, Yellow Toadshade, Lemon-scented Trillium, Wax Trillium
Trillium maculatum range map Mottled Trillium, Spotted Trillium
Trillium oostingii range map Wateree River Trillium
Trillium recurvatum range map Prairie Trillium, Prairie Wake-robin, Recurved Trillium
Trillium reliquum range map Relict Trillium
Trillium sessile range map Sessile Trillium, Sessile Toadshade, Toad Trillium
Trillium species 3 range map Lookout Mountain Trillium, Ruby Falls Trillium, Freeman's Trillium
Trillium stamineum range map Twisted Trillium, Helicopter Trillium
Trillium underwoodii range map Underwood's Trillium

 

Click the SUBMIT button to examine Trillium that meet your criteria (listed below).

Trillium cernuum range map Northern Nodding Trillium
Trillium erectum range map Red Trillium, Purple Trillium, Stinking Willie, Stinking Benjamin
Trillium flexipes range map Bent Trillium, Bent White Trillium, Bentstalk Trillium, Drooping Trillium
Trillium rugelii range map Southern Nodding Trillium
Trillium simile range map Sweet White Trillium, Confusing Trillium, Jeweled Trillium
Trillium species 2 range map Amicalola Trillium
Trillium sulcatum range map Southern Red Trillium, Barksdale's Trillium
Trillium vaseyi range map Vasey's Trillium, Sweet Trillium, Sweet Beth

 

Click the SUBMIT button to examine Trillium that meet your criteria (listed below).

Trillium catesbyi range map Catesby's Trillium, Rosy Wake-robin, Bashful Trillium, Rose Trillium
Trillium grandiflorum range map Large-flowered Trillium, Great White Trillium, White Wake-robin, Showy Wake-robin
Trillium persistens range map Persistent Trillium, Edna's Trillium
Trillium pusillum + range map Carolina Least Trillium, Virginia Dwarf Trillium, Aiken Least Trillium

 

Click the SUBMIT button to examine Trillium that meet your criteria (listed below).

Trillidium undulatum range map Painted Trillium, Striped Wake-robin

 

Click the SUBMIT button to examine Trillium that meet your criteria (listed below).

Trillidium undulatum range map Painted Trillium, Striped Wake-robin
Trillium catesbyi range map Catesby's Trillium, Rosy Wake-robin, Bashful Trillium, Rose Trillium
Trillium erectum range map Red Trillium, Purple Trillium, Stinking Willie, Stinking Benjamin
Trillium flexipes range map Bent Trillium, Bent White Trillium, Bentstalk Trillium, Drooping Trillium
Trillium grandiflorum range map Large-flowered Trillium, Great White Trillium, White Wake-robin, Showy Wake-robin
Trillium persistens range map Persistent Trillium, Edna's Trillium
Trillium pusillum + range map Carolina Least Trillium, Virginia Dwarf Trillium, Aiken Least Trillium
Trillium simile range map Sweet White Trillium, Confusing Trillium, Jeweled Trillium
Trillium species 2 range map Amicalola Trillium
Trillium sulcatum range map Southern Red Trillium, Barksdale's Trillium

 

Click the SUBMIT button to examine Trillium that meet your criteria (listed below).

Trillium catesbyi range map Catesby's Trillium, Rosy Wake-robin, Bashful Trillium, Rose Trillium
Trillium cernuum range map Northern Nodding Trillium
Trillium flexipes range map Bent Trillium, Bent White Trillium, Bentstalk Trillium, Drooping Trillium
Trillium rugelii range map Southern Nodding Trillium
Trillium species 2 range map Amicalola Trillium
Trillium vaseyi range map Vasey's Trillium, Sweet Trillium, Sweet Beth

 

Click the SUBMIT button to examine Trillium that meet your criteria (listed below).

Trillium erectum range map Red Trillium, Purple Trillium, Stinking Willie, Stinking Benjamin
Trillium flexipes range map Bent Trillium, Bent White Trillium, Bentstalk Trillium, Drooping Trillium
Trillium simile range map Sweet White Trillium, Confusing Trillium, Jeweled Trillium
Trillium species 2 range map Amicalola Trillium
Trillium sulcatum range map Southern Red Trillium, Barksdale's Trillium

 

Click the SUBMIT button to examine Trillium that meet your criteria (listed below).

Trillium cernuum range map Northern Nodding Trillium
Trillium flexipes range map Bent Trillium, Bent White Trillium, Bentstalk Trillium, Drooping Trillium
Trillium rugelii range map Southern Nodding Trillium
Trillium species 2 range map Amicalola Trillium
Trillium vaseyi range map Vasey's Trillium, Sweet Trillium, Sweet Beth

 

Click the SUBMIT button to examine Trillium that meet your criteria (listed below).

Trillium catesbyi range map Catesby's Trillium, Rosy Wake-robin, Bashful Trillium, Rose Trillium
Trillium grandiflorum range map Large-flowered Trillium, Great White Trillium, White Wake-robin, Showy Wake-robin
Trillium persistens range map Persistent Trillium, Edna's Trillium
Trillium pusillum + range map Carolina Least Trillium, Virginia Dwarf Trillium, Aiken Least Trillium

 

Click the SUBMIT button to examine Trillium that meet your criteria (listed below).

Trillium catesbyi range map Catesby's Trillium, Rosy Wake-robin, Bashful Trillium, Rose Trillium

 

Click the SUBMIT button to examine Trillium that meet your criteria (listed below).

Trillidium undulatum range map Painted Trillium, Striped Wake-robin

 

This database doesn't include any Trillium that meet those criteria.

 

This database doesn't include any Trillium that meet those criteria.

 

Click the SUBMIT button to examine Trillium that meet your criteria (listed below).

Trillium cuneatum range map Little Sweet Betsy, Purple Toadshade
Trillium ludovicianum range map Louisiana Trillium, Louisiana Wake-robin
Trillium luteum range map Yellow Trillium, Yellow Toadshade, Lemon-scented Trillium, Wax Trillium
Trillium species 3 range map Lookout Mountain Trillium, Ruby Falls Trillium, Freeman's Trillium

 

This database doesn't include any Trillium that meet those criteria.

 

Click the SUBMIT button to examine Trillium that meet your criteria (listed below).

Trillium discolor range map Pale Yellow Trillium, Faded Trillium, Small Yellow Toadshade, Savannah River Trillium
Trillium lancifolium range map Lanceleaf Trillium, Narrowleaf Trillium
Trillium maculatum range map Mottled Trillium, Spotted Trillium
Trillium oostingii range map Wateree River Trillium
Trillium recurvatum range map Prairie Trillium, Prairie Wake-robin, Recurved Trillium

 

This database doesn't include any Trillium that meet those criteria.

 

Click the SUBMIT button to examine Trillium that meet your criteria (listed below).

Trillium decipiens range map Chattahoochee Trillium, Deceptive Trillium
Trillium decumbens range map Decumbent Trillium, Trailing Trillium
Trillium delicatum range map Ocmulgee Trillium, Oaky Woods Trillium
Trillium reliquum range map Relict Trillium
Trillium sessile range map Sessile Trillium, Sessile Toadshade, Toad Trillium
Trillium stamineum range map Twisted Trillium, Helicopter Trillium
Trillium underwoodii range map Underwood's Trillium

 

This key was inspired by “Trilliums of Georgia,” Tipularia (Patrick, 2007), and built on that, as well as on the Vascular Flora of the Carolinas (Radford, Ahles & Bell, 1968), Weakley's Flora (Weakley, drafts 2008+), and Flora of North America.

Revised 6 March 2013; reformatted 14 May 2022 (hopefully I didn't break the code that makes it work...).

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